Graphite Based Electrode for ECG Monitoring: Evaluation under Freshwater and Saltwater Conditions

Sensors. 2016;16(4):542 DOI 10.3390/s16040542

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Sensors

ISSN: 1424-8220 (Online)

Publisher: MDPI AG

LCC Subject Category: Technology: Chemical technology

Country of publisher: Switzerland

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, ePUB, XML

 

AUTHORS

Tharoeun Thap (Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 460 Iksandeaero, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea)
Kwon-Ha Yoon (Department of Radiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 460 Iksandeaero, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea)
Jinseok Lee (Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 460 Iksandeaero, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea)

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 11 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

We proposed new electrodes that are applicable for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring under freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions. Our proposed electrodes are made of graphite pencil lead (GPL), a general-purpose writing pencil. We have fabricated two types of electrode: a pencil lead solid type (PLS) electrode and a pencil lead powder type (PLP) electrode. In order to assess the qualities of the PLS and PLP electrodes, we compared their performance with that of a commercial Ag/AgCl electrode, under a total of seven different conditions: dry, freshwater immersion with/without movement, post-freshwater wet condition, saltwater immersion with/without movement, and post-saltwater wet condition. In both dry and post-freshwater wet conditions, all ECG-recorded PQRST waves were clearly discernible, with all types of electrodes, Ag/AgCl, PLS, and PLP. On the other hand, under the freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions with/without movement, as well as post-saltwater wet conditions, we found that the proposed PLS and PLP electrodes provided better ECG waveform quality, with significant statistical differences compared with the quality provided by Ag/AgCl electrodes.